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For moderate to severe intellectual disability male to female ratios of 1.33:1 (Mc Carthy et al. While numerous theories have been forwarded to explain the causal mechanisms of this predominantly high male–female ratio in ASD, the topic remains widely debated in the current literature.For example, the positive correlation between intellectual disability and severity of symptoms (Carter et al.Both the Mo Ba and the ABC study obtained written informed consent from participating mothers and were approved by the Norwegian Data Inspectorate, as well as the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics South-East Norway (REK).The present study uses the Mo Ba data release version 9, more about the sample selection displayed in Fig. It includes 23 yes-or-no questions to be completed by parents and followed-up by an interview with parents of children yielding a positive M-CHAT screen score.Exact age at first diagnosis and level of functioning is not available for patients retrieved from the NPR, as it only lists the diagnostic status of a given child for the specific year(s) seen by specialized services.The possibility of person specific identification of diagnosis in the NPR registry started in 2008.The non-ASD group consist of mostly typically developing children, though some children might have other diagnoses.
In addition, from the clinical records registered in the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR), ASD-diagnosis registered at any-time from the first 1 year of age were used.
On the other hand Baron-Cohen and colleagues, have turned to the general population and suggest that he “systemizing cognitive profile” typically found in males within the general population is reflected in gender differences in autism (Auyeung et al. In line with these studies, which widen the context by which behavioral manifestations of autism are considered by considering population-based phenomena, the present study further extends continuum-based perspectives of ASD-related behaviors in a large population based sample of children between 17 and 30 months.
This perspective is consistent with the Research Domain Criteria (RDo C: Insel et al. The overall aim for the present study is to examine sex differences in ASD-relevant behaviors as endorsed by parents in a cohort of children between 17 and 30 months of age. Mo Ba is a prospective population-based pregnancy cohort study established by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
Within ASD, females showed relative strengths in joint attention, but impairments in imitation.
Studies examining gender differences in typically developing infants and toddlers show sex-specific patterns in behavior and development.